Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 7 by Gerald Tesauro, David S. Touretzky, Todd K. Leen

By Gerald Tesauro, David S. Touretzky, Todd K. Leen

November 28-December 1, 1994, Denver, Colorado NIPS is the longest operating annual assembly dedicated to Neural info Processing structures. Drawing on such disparate domain names as neuroscience, cognitive technology, laptop technological know-how, information, arithmetic, engineering, and theoretical physics, the papers accumulated within the court cases of NIPS7 replicate the iconic clinical and useful benefit of a broad-based, inclusive method of neural info processing. the first concentration continues to be the research of a wide selection of studying algorithms and architectures, for either supervised and unsupervised studying. The 139 contributions are divided into 8 elements: Cognitive technological know-how, Neuroscience, studying thought, Algorithms and Architectures, Implementations, Speech and sign Processing, visible Processing, and purposes. themes of targeted curiosity contain the research of recurrent nets, connections to HMMs and the EM strategy, and reinforcement- studying algorithms and the relation to dynamic programming. at the theoretical entrance, development is pronounced within the concept of generalization, regularization, combining a number of versions, and energetic studying. Neuroscientific reviews variety from the large-scale structures akin to visible cortex to single-cell electrotonic constitution, and paintings in cognitive clinical is heavily tied to underlying neural constraints. There also are many novel functions reminiscent of tokamak plasma keep watch over, Glove-Talk, and hand monitoring, and quite a few implementations, with specific specialize in analog VLSI.

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Sections of code are enclosed in braces ({ and }, sometimes called "curly brackets") to limit the scope of declarations and to act as a single statement for control structures. As an imperative language, C uses statements to specify actions. The most common statement is an expression statement, consisting of an expression to be evaluated, followed by a semicolon; as a side effect of the evaluation, functions may be called and variables may be assigned new values. To modify the normal sequential execution of statements, C provides several control-flow statements identified by reserved keywords.

This type stands for "pointer to any object" in Objective-C (See the Dynamic typing section). The initializer pattern is used in order to assure that the object is properly initialized by its superclass before the init method performs its initialization. It performs the following actions: 1. self = [super init] Sends the superclass instance an init message and assigns the result to self (pointer to the current object). 2. if (self) Checks if the returned object pointer is valid before performing any initialization.

For example, (1 2 foo) is a list whose elements are three atoms: the values 1, 2, and foo. These values are implicitly typed: they are respectively two integers and a Lisp-specific data type called a "symbol", and do not have to be declared as such. The empty list () is also represented as the special atom nil. This is the only entity in Lisp which is both an atom and a list. Expressions are written as lists, using prefix notation. ) The remainder of the list are the arguments. For example, the function list returns its arguments as a list, so the expression (list '1 '2 'foo) evaluates to the list (1 2 foo).

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