By Bert Cardullo
The time period 'neorealism' was once first utilized by way of the critic Antonio Pietrangeli to Visconti's 'Ossessione' (1942), and the fashion got here to fruition within the mid-to-late forties in such motion pictures of Roberto Rossellini, Luchino Visconti, and Vittorio De Sica as 'Rome, Open urban' (1945), 'Shoeshine' (1946), 'Paisan' (1947), 'Bicycle Thieves' (1948), and 'The Earth Trembles' (1948). those photos reacted not just opposed to the banality that had lengthy been the dominant mode of Italian cinema, but in addition opposed to triumphing socioeconomic stipulations in Italy. With minimum assets, the neorealist filmmakers labored in genuine destinations utilizing area people in addition to expert actors; they improvised their scripts, as desire be, on web site; and, their motion pictures conveyed a robust experience of the plight of standard participants oppressed via political conditions past their keep an eye on. therefore Italian neorealism used to be the 1st postwar cinema to disencumber filmmaking from the unreal confines of the studio and, by means of extension, from the Hollywood-originated studio method. yet neorealism was once the expression of a whole ethical or moral philosophy, to boot, and never easily simply one other new cinematic type. 'After Neorealism: Italian Filmmakers and Their motion pictures' is an test, via essays and interviews, to chronicle what occurred to neorealism after the disappearance of the forces that produced it - international conflict II, the resistance, and liberation, via the postwar reconstruction of a morally, politically, and economically devastated society. in reality, neorealism didn't disappear: it replaced its shape yet now not its profoundly humanistic matters, counting on the filmmaker and the movie. Neorealistic stylistic and thematic ideas were perpetuated not just by means of the 1st new release of administrators who succeeded latter-day neorealists like Federico Fellini and Michelangelo Antonioni, but in addition through the second one new release of auteurs to prevail those artists. between contributors of that first new release we may perhaps count number Ermanno Olmi, along with his compassionate stories of working-class sensible 'Il Posto' (1961), and Francesco Rosi, along with his full of life assaults at the abuse of energy comparable to 'Salvatore Giuliano' (1961). they're joined, between others, via Pier Paolo Pasolini ('Accattone', 1961), Vittorio De Seta ('Banditi a Orgosolo', 1961), Marco Bellocchio ('I pugni in tasca', 1965), and the Taviani brothers, Vittorio and Paolo ('Padre Padrone', 1977). And those filmmakers themselves were through Gianni Amelio ('Stolen Children', 1990), Nanni Moretti ('The Mass Is Ended', 1988), Giuseppe Tornatore ('Cinema Paradiso', 1988), and Maurizio Nichetti ('The Icicle Thief', 1989). From this diversified crew, 'After Neorealism: Italian Filmmakers and Their movies' contains interviews with, and essays approximately, Olmi, Pasolini, Amelio, and Moretti, with items besides on such seminal figures as Visconti, Fellini, and Antonioni. additionally integrated are an extended, contextualizing creation, filmographies of the administrators handled during this e-book, and bibliographies of books approximately them in addition to approximately Italian cinema regularly.
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Extra info for After Neorealism: Italian Filmmakers and Their Films; Essays and Interviews
But Di Venanzo understood the tone: to make people laugh with a story that was dramatic rather than comic. Yet a story viewed with a comic eye. : How did you go about writing the screenplay with Age-Scarpelli? : We would begin by talking about everything but the film. We would talk about what happened that day, newspaper items, as well as about books we had read and films we had seen. And then, bit by bit, we would get to the film. We would begin by talking about specific scenes, work scenes out, take notes, and then divide things up.
René Clair based his comedy on funerals and that type of thing. The true comic, the true director of comedy, draws a great deal on poverty and misery, on dramatic things that don’t otherwise seem comic. : Mr. Monicelli, in your long, illustrious career, is there something that you are most proud of? : You know I cannot really say, because sometimes you are most proud of a film that had great critical and audience success, and another time you have affection for a film for the contrary reason. You loved the film and worked very hard on it, but it didn’t catch on with the public.
What distinguishes Fellini from the neorealists, however, is an insistence on the primary force of human imagination. His characters aren’t solely motivated by externals—the theft of a bicycle, social indifference, child and elderly abandonment or neglect—as Vittorio De Sica’s were. Nor, like Ermanno Olmi, does Fellini invert neorealism by studying only the human accommodation to such external circumstances. Instead, he denies the pure externality of events, choosing instead to show that reality and imagination interpenetrate.