An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: by Toshi H. Arimura

By Toshi H. Arimura

Focusing on pollution, power potency and weather swap, this booklet presents an advent to Japan’s environmental regulations and rules, and gives financial analyses and RIAs (Regulatory impression research) of environmental rules applied or deliberate by way of the nationwide and native governments. the outlet bankruptcy experiences environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting autos in metropolitan parts. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan govt law which calls for set up of pollutants regulate apparatus in older vehicles that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four lines the effect of the NOx-PM Act at the used vehicle industry and used automobile exports. bankruptcy five offers an financial research of a street toll aid, revealing an unforeseen damaging social impression: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters handle regulations and laws regarding power potency and weather swap bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended a number of instances to deal with weather swap. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the impression of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate non permanent fiscal affects in each one area. additionally provided this is an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the influence of the thought on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the function and barriers of financial versions for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse gasoline) emission objective in the course of the post-Kyoto interval. this is often the 1st booklet to judge jap environmental rules from an monetary viewpoint, utilizing quite a few present quantitative techniques. Its findings and recommendations will profit scholars, coverage makers and govt officers in constructing and constructed nations the place the general public faces comparable environmental problems.

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Different predictions were provided, creating confusion in the policy making process. The last chapter will consider how one can interpret and use results based on economic models when developing environmental policies. References 17 References Boardman A, Greenberg D, Vining A, Weimer D (2010) Cost-benefit analysis, 4th edn, Pearson series in economics. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River Burataw D, Krupnick A, Palmer K, Paul A, Toman M, Bloyd C (2003) Ancillary benefits of reduced air pollution in the US from moderate greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the electricity sector.

Our estimates of the benefit should be interpreted with caution, as they are likely to be biased. However, the direction of the bias can be inferred and is likely to be downward for the following reasons. First, both NETCEN (2002) and Koyama and Kishimoto (2001) estimated the MEC in terms of the medical expenditure, thus excluding disutility from discomfort. This method results in an underestimation of the MEC. Second, even if the MECs of NOx and PM are precisely estimated, the MEC in the enforcement areas is unlikely to be near the lower bound.

2007). 1 for our computational methodology). In principle, we could have used any other year, but this year was chosen because of data availability and because more recent data are preferable. This preference is especially notable given that the life expectancies of trucks have increased compared to those in 1990, for example, because of technological improvements and the deregulation of vehicle inspection (Oka et al. 2007). However, we must also choose from data in the years before the VTR was imposed; as mentioned above, life expectancies are likely to have been shortened under the VTR.

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