By Julian Dodd
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Extra resources for An Identity Theory of Truth
There is’, says Dummett, no reason to think that an expression occurring in double oratio obliqua has a sense or a reference different from that which it has in single oratio obliqua: its referent in double oratio obliqua will be the sense it has in single oratio obliqua, which is the same as the sense it has in ordinary contexts, which is the same as its referent in single oratio obliqua. , p. 268) If there is no such thing as indirect sense, then there is no problem. , p. 263) because expressions with the same sense may be intersubstituted salva veritate within both single and double oratio obliqua.
According to McFetridge, the thing Eleanor claimed Lois said is the set of utterances bound by Eleanor’s own utterance of ‘Superman can fly’, while the thing Susan claimed she said is the set of utterances bound by Susan’s utterance of the same sentence. But the crucial point is that these are distinct sets: because Susan’s utterance took place ten minutes after Eleanor’s, the set of utterances bound by Susan’s utterance of ‘Superman can fly’ has one more member than the set of utterances bound by Eleanor’s utterance, namely Susan’s own utterance.
Where, Armstrong asks, can we locate the state of affairs of two objects standing in some relation? One option is to accept that the state of affairs is an abstract entity, an option which Armstrong wishes to resist because he takes the space-time world to be a conjunction of states of affairs (1991, p. 195; 1997, p. 135). On the other hand, to locate the state of affairs in the mereological fusion of the two objects is, Armstrong admits, ‘not very pleasant’ (1991, p. , p. 195). As Vendler himself puts it, ‘[i]f the correspondence theory requires a relation between empirical statements and observable entities in the world, then facts are not qualified for this latter role’ (1967a, p.