By Graham Oppy, N. N. Trakakis
The origins of the Western philosophical culture lie within the historical Greco-Roman international. This quantity presents a special perception into the existence and writings of a various team of philosophers in antiquity and offers the most recent pondering on their perspectives on God, the gods, non secular trust and perform. starting with the 'pre-Socratics', the amount then explores the influential contributions made to the Western philosophy of faith through the 3 towering figures of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. The chapters that stick to disguise the the best philosophers of the most important colleges of the traditional global - Epicureanism, Stoicism, Neoplatonism and the early Christian Church. "Ancient Philosophy of faith" can be of curiosity to students and scholars of Philosophy, Classics and faith, whereas closing obtainable to any attracted to the wealthy cultural history of historic spiritual idea.
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Extra resources for Ancient Philosophy of Religion: The History of Western Philosophy of Religion, Volume 1
Kidd 1995; Brenk 1998) surely goes beyond this. It addresses the metaphysical question of how an increasingly distant god interacts, practically speaking, with the world. One of the principal roles fulfilled by daimones, then, was to bridge the ontological gaps opened up by the design argument, in a way that would ultimately lead to the baroque celestial hierarchies developed in Proclus and Pseudo-Dionysius. But it also addresses the phenomenological question of how we encounter deity across these ontological divides.
However interpreted, this statement (in contrast with the akousma identi- 8. ); Brenk (1986: 2094–8). 32 pythagoras fying Pythagoras with the Hyperborean Apollo) sees Pythagoras as a super-human being, in the literal sense of the word, and if we are not supposed to recognize in him a daimōn, then we have to see him at least as a divine man (theios anēr). To return to demonology proper, early Pythagoreans seem to have believed that the daimones inhabit the moon, that the air is full of them (as well as of souls of heroes), that they send dreams, signs and diseases to human beings and beasts, and that their number within a certain region remains constant (Brenk 1986: 2095).
Indeed Plato has been criticized since antiquity for appealing to our fear of the gods in this way as a motive for virtue (Chrysippus, as reported by Plutarch, On the Contradictions of the Stoics 1040a–b). But this stands as a criticism of Plato in particular not least because his official position seems to be based in a more positive vision of virtue as self-fulfilment through identification with god, a view that one way or another was to become extremely influential. This idea relates closely to two themes we have already seen, namely the argument from experience and the idea associated with it that what is experienced has the character of a person of sorts.